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HomepageWorld Haplogroup & Haplo-I Subclade Predictor
Predictor Reference Page
Jim Cullen


World Haplogroup Modal Haplotypes
Haplogroup/Haplo-I Subclade Predictor Program


The following modal haplotypes of the world's haplogroups/sub-haplogroups are the result of the research of others and have been compiled for use in the haplogroup predictor program. The table is presented here only to facilitate others checking the modals for accuracy and completeness. Full credit for the work of the researchers who developed these modal signatures will be given in the predictor program also. This table is only temporary and will be removed or edited upon completion of the predictor program

As this table is developed, the nomenclature will be changed to reflect a new naming system that will follow the pattern Haplogroup - SNP - [Cluster]. This new system will hold the traditional names of the major subhaplogroups constant as defined by SNP and traditional naming conventions. For example, haplogroup R, defined by M207+, will be allowed to exist as three separate sub-haplogroups; R1a defined by SRY10831.2+, R1b defined by M343+ ( previously defined by P25+ ), and R2 defined by M124. In the future, no matter how the SNP tree and subclade nomenclature may change, R1a, R1b, and R2 will maintain their traditional names as time constant 'tags' representing the major logical divisions of the R-haplogroup that everyone is already familiar with. Immediate recognition is important. Those who are 'I1a' will always think of themselves that way and will respond immediately. Myself, I am Ix and will always instantly key in on any mention of the 'X-Cluster'. Identity is the key; I will always identify better with a name than I will with a string of digits representing a SNP or with an alphanumeric nomenclature as long as my arm that is constantly changing.

Some refinements on this nomenclature system have been suggested. One of them is the return of the 'asterisk', to be used in a similar manner as in the past. Take for example the case of the large group known presently as R1b1c* and soon to be R1b1b2* in the YCC2008 SNP tree. In our new nomenclature they will be called R1b-M269* where the 'asterisk' indicates that there are SNP's downstream of M269 but that this group tests negative for all of them. The lack of an asterisk would represent the fact that there are no downstream SNP's to test for; that the group is a terminal branch on the SNP tree. One example of this case would be the present R1b1c7 M222+ Northwest Irish subclade. In our new nomenclature they are R1b-M222-NWIrish with no asterisk since they are a terminal branch. Due to the lack of SNP testing in many cases however, we also allow for the use that indicates that there ARE downstream SNPs but that this group's status is unknown or uncertain for those SNPs.

Another refinement is that you may wish to indicate a particular branch or all of the population testing positive or derived for a particular SNP without regard to the status of SNPs downstream of that point. When downstream SNP status is not indicated or irrelevant to the discussion, the SNP could be placed in parentheses. If we are discussing the present R1b1c in general, without regard to downstream SNP status, we could write this as R1b-(M269) and leave it at that. This also helps to prevent the 'R1b' all by itself from being confused with R1b as it is currently used outside of this nomenclature. The alternative is to include the '+' sign after the SNP to indicate R1b population who are M269+ or R1b-M269+ which works quite well also. We should adopt one or the other method however, to keep our own nomenclature consistent. I prefer parentheses myself. The signed nomenclature looks too much like what we've been using all along and might not be recognized as the new nomenclature. Of course the parentheses are not that much better I'll admit.

Subclades and clusters can be included in the new nomenclature as well. We'll take a look at the Haplo-I SNP tree for this. The traditional names are preserved in the Haplo-I tree also. The 'I1b' nametag is traditionally associated with P37.2+ status and so this branch of the tree is I1b-(P37.2) which is a bit redundant since 'I1b' and 'P37.2' are the same thing; we could just as well have said I-P37.2 in this case since the branching in this portion of the I-tree is pretty shallow. In any case we are concerned with the group I1b-P37.2* meaning those who have tested positive for P37.2 but negative for all downstream SNPs ( and there are only a couple SNPs there to test! ). There are several Y-STR clusters, actual subcades, that fall into this category; there are the Dinaric, Isles, and Western varieties of I1b-P37.2*. In the new nomenclature they would be called I1b-P37.2*-Dinaric, I1b-P37.2*-Isles, and I1b-P37.2*-Western. Clusters for which there is no SNP data defined besides maybe the FTDNA backbone tests would fall into the standard nomenclature easily. For example, R1b-M269-Ir/Cont is known to be R1b-(M269) but no SNP status downstream is known - or at least has not been brought to my attention. Care should be taken with Y-STR defined clusters since the cluster may be included in more than one terminal branch. We've seen that it's also possible that a terminal branch may contain more than one Y-STR defined cluster. SNPs and clusters can not be equated reliably based on just a few SNP tests.

There are 55 subclades for the Haplo-I tree that are not shown here that are the work of Ken Nordtvedt. Haplo-I is very lucky to have Ken at the forefront of research. I don't think any other haplogroup can claim such a huge number of well defined, organized, and researched modal sets. I think many underestimate what an amazing amount of work it is to accomplish what Ken has in the last few years - and he calls it a 'hobby'! Many of the haplogroup modals below were originally found at John McEwans's site when no other source was available or known. R1a data came from Ken Nordtvedt and from the Scandanavian Y-DNA Project. The E3b data comes from the E3b Project and from Robert Tarin. Haplo-J data comes from Bonnie Schrack, and Alfred A. Aburto Jr. R2 data came from Ken Nordtvedt, Vincent Vizachero, myself, and discussions with John Simpson. R1b data is a bit of a mish-mash with credit for research due to many. Assistance with R1b from Dennis Wright was much appreciated as was the feedback on the nomenclature and the haplogroup predictor itself. I can even give myself credit here since I originally spotted the R1b-Ir/Cont variety and some of its modal structure after which Ken Nordtvedt finished the analysis and polished the modal definition. Dennis Wright separately discovered the same group. Data for haplogroup 'N' came from the Scandanavian Y-DNA Project.




86 modal sets
+ 56 Haplo-I
= 142 modals
TOTAL
3
9
3
3
9
0
1
9
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
|
1
3
9
2
3
8
9
|
2
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
0
G
A
T
A
 
H
4
Y
C
A
II
a
Y
C
A
II
b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
I1a-M2531322141013141114111211281589811231620281214151610101921141400001210
I1a-M253-AS(gen)1322141013141114111211281589811231620281214151610111921141400001210
I1a-M253-AS51422141013131116111211281589811221620281214151510101921141400001210
I1a-M253-AS9b132216101314111411121128168981123162029.51214151510111921141400001110
I1a-M253-T21323141013141114111211281579811231620281214151610101921141400001210
I1a-M253-N1323141014141114111211281589811231620281214151610101921141400001210
I1a-M253-uN21323141014151114111211281589811231620291114141610101921141400001210
I1b-P37.2132415111215111312141130188101111251520291214141510102121141300001210
I1b-P37.2-Dinaric132416111415111313131131178101111251520321214151510102121151200001110
I1b-P37.2-IslesA1323.515111216111311131130188101112241420301214141510101921171300001210
I1b-P37.2-Isles132415111215.511131114113017810111125252028121214141010212117.51300001210
I1b-P37.2-Western13231510121511151214113018.5891111261418291114141510102121141000001210
I1b-M26-Sardinian132316101212111312131128178101111251521301114141510111121141200001210
I1c152315101515111311131230158101111251420271114141511101921141400001210
I(x)13251611131611131112112816810101225151928141415151091919141400001210
I*-S31-A132315101214111312121129171010111125152129111516169101921161400001210
I*-S31-B14241510121311131113113019881111241520321115161611101921171300001210
I*-S31-C122215.5101214111311121129178101111261520261115161610102121151300001110
G214221510141411131112112916991111231621301213131410112020151300001110
G513231510131611121114113218891111241621281314151510112020171600001210
A&B1321151111121211121311291689911231521341011151610112121141400001110
E3a132115101617111212131132168101111241421311316161811111919151400001111
E3b1324131016181112121311301799111126142032141616179111922151300001210
E3b-M35*13241310161711121214113016991111261420331616171711112122161200001210
E3b-M781324131016181112121311301599111126142032141616179111921171200001110
E3b-V1213231310161611121213113017991111251420341315151710111922161200001310
E3b-V131324131016181112121311301599111126142032141617179111921171200001110
E3b-V2213241410171911121213113016991111251420331416161811111922151200001110
E3b-M1831324139131411121014113018991112231420321416161711111922161300001210
E3b-M3413241310171811121213113116991111261420321415161710101922151300001310
H1322151011171112111311291799111125141931121214151111192116110000129
J1223141013171115111311291689111126152029131315161010192215140000119
J-M26712231410131811161113113017891111261420261214161711102222151400001210
J-M1721223141013171115121311291689111126152129121315161010192215140000119
J-M410-1b12251410141611151114113016991111251620301315151810102122151300001010
J-M671223141013161115111311301599111126152029121315161010192215130000129
J-M921222141014151115121411311599111126152029131315161010192215120000129
J-M1021224151014171115121211281689111128161929131515181110192013140000119
J-M20512241510161811151212112817891112251419301415151711101920141517173541119
F14231410131311121314113117891111231519301212151610101717151300001111
Fx14221610111311121214113116991111221621311212121310102020151500001110
K21323131014161112111413301899111326151934111316161010232416140000119
L111221410131811121312142815991112231519281414151611111919161400001110
L212231410161811121114153015991112251619321415151710101921161400001110
L3122215109161112121314291999111225161926151516161191921151400001110
N14231411111311121014143017991112251419281414151511111820141500001210
N3a1-Finn1424141111131112101414301710101112251419301313141411111820141500001210
N-E.Eur14221311111311121014143017991112261419291414151511111820141500001410
N-Germ14231511111411121013142917991112251419281414151511111820151500001410
N-Baltic1424141111131112101414301710101112251419301212141411111820141500001210
O12231510121311121212132817991111241420311213151511121923141500001110
Q-M242-Main132513101316121212131430159911112514193014141417111019231714181733361111
Q-Cluster1132313101416121212131429179911112614192914141616101119231514181733381111
Q-M242-Group11323131013211212121214281891011122715192914151516101119221715172033361212
Q-M242-Group2132313101317121212121229169911112514193013141415101019201613191733361111
Q-M242-Group3/413221310141612121213152917991111251419291415151610919191514171633381211
Q-M242-Group5132414101416121312131431158911112713192914141616101019231514191632411111
Q-M3132313101517121212131431149911102614213113191920101119231516182036381211
R1a132515101114121210131130159101111231420321215151611111923161600001211
R1a-Norse132515111114121210141131159101111231420311215151611121921161600001211
R1a1-English132515101114121010131130159101111251419321214141711111923151600001311
R1a-Jewish132516101114121210131130149101111241420311212151611111923141600001411
R1a1-Polish132517101014121210131130169101111231420321215161611111923161700001311
R1b-M343132414111114121212131329179101111251519291515171711111923151500001212
R1b-S21*-Frisian132314111114121212131329179101111241519291516171811111923161500001312
R1b-S21*-Scot132414101114121212131330189101111251519301515171711131924151500001212
R1b-S21*-Scot2132414101115121212131330209101111251519301515161711121924151500001212
R1b-IrishIII13241411111412121113132917891111251519291313151711111923151500001212
R1b-N.Irish132514111113121212131429179101111251518301516161711111923171600001212
R1b-S.Irish132414101115121211131329179101111241519291515171711111923151500001312
R1b-M222-NWIrish132514111113121212131429179101111251518301516161711111923171600001212
R1b-Irish/Cont132414101215131212131329179101111251519291515161810.5111923151500001212
R1b-E.Eur122414111114121212131330169101111251519291415161811111923151500001212
R1b-C.Eur13241511111412121113132917991111251517281515171711111923151500001212
R1b-N.S.1132414111114121212131329179101111251418291515161711101923161500001212
R1b-N.S.2132414111114121212141330179101111251418291515171710101923161500001212
R1b-S29-Frisian21323141111151212121313291791011112514192915151718111119221614161737401212
R1b-Frisian3132314111114121211131329179101111241519291516171811101923161500001312
R1b-Frisian4132314111114121211131328169101111251519291515161811122123151500001212
R1b-Ub13241410111412121213132917991111251519301515161711111922151500001212
R1b-S26132414111114121212131329179911112515192915161617101119231616171737381212
R1b-S21*1323141111141212121313291891011112415192915161718111119231715171737381312
R1b-S281324141111141212121313291791011112515193015151617111119231615191736381212
R2-M124-ClusterA-YCAIIab=16/2114231410132112121115103015991111271619321212141411111621151400001111
R2-M124-ClusterB-YCAIIab=20/2014231410132012121114102916991111251419331212151610102020151500001211
R2-M124-ClusterC-DYS459ab=8/914231410132012121013103117891111281619331213141610101921151500001211




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